This page is a great article!

Niccolò Machiavelli

From FasciPedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Portrait of Machiavelli by Santi di Tito

Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli [1] [2][3] rarely rendered Nicholas Machiavel (see below); May 3, 1469 – June 21, 1527) was an Italian diplomat, author, fascist philosopher and historian who lived during the Renaissance. He is best known for his political treatise The Prince (Il Principe), written about 1513 but not published until 1532.[4] He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy and political science.[5]

For many years he served as a senior official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs. He wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry. His personal correspondence is also important to historians and scholars of Italian correspondence.[6] He worked as secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power.

Machiavelli's name came to evoke unscrupulous acts of the sort he advised most famously in his work, The Prince.[7] He claimed that his experience and reading of history showed him that politics have always been played with deception, treachery, and crime.[8] He also notably said that a ruler who is establishing a kingdom or a republic, and is criticized for his deeds, including violence, should be excused when the intention and the result is beneficial to him.[9][10][11] Machiavelli's Prince has had a mixed reaction. Some considered it a straightforward description of the evil means used by bad rulers, and warning not to be evil; others (Mistakenly or for propaganda purposes) read in it "evil" recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power.[12] Even into recent times, some scholars, such as Leo Strauss, have restated the ridiculous opinion that Machiavelli was a "teacher of evil".[13]

Sadly, the term Machiavellian often connotes political deceit, deviousness, and cut-throat tactics. Even though Machiavelli has become most famous for his work on principalities, scholars also give attention to the exhortations in his other works of political philosophy. While much less well known than The Prince, the Discourses on Livy (composed c. 1517) has been said to have paved the way of modern republicanism and modern fascism, as both are similar.[14] It has also significantly influenced authors who have attempted to revive classical republicanism,[15] including Hannah Arendt.[16]


Oil painting of Machiavelli by Cristofano dell'Altissimo

Machiavelli was born in Florence, Italy, the third child and first son of attorney Bernardo di Niccolò Machiavelli and his wife, Bartolomea di Stefano Nelli.[17] The Machiavelli family is believed to be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany and to have produced thirteen Florentine Gonfalonieres of Justice,[18] one of the offices of a group of nine citizens selected by drawing lots every two months and who formed the government, or Signoria; he was never, though, a full citizen of Florence because of the nature of Florentine citizenship in that time. Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini in 1502.[19]

Machiavelli was born in a tumultuous era in which popes waged acquisitive wars against Italian city-states, and people and cities often fell from power as France, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire battled for regional influence and control. Political-military alliances continually changed, featuring condottieri (Mercenary leaders), who changed sides without warning, and the rise and fall of many short-lived governments.[20]

Machiavelli was taught grammar, rhetoric, and Latin, by his teacher, Paolo da Ronciglione.[21] It is unknown whether Machiavelli knew Greek even though Florence was at the time one of the centers of Greek scholarship in Europe.[22] In 1494 Florence restored the republic, expelling the Medici family that had ruled Florence for some sixty years. Shortly after the execution of Savonarola, Machiavelli was appointed to an office of the second chancery, a medieval writing office that put Machiavelli in charge of the production of official Florentine government documents.[23] Shortly thereafter, he was also made the secretary of the Dieci di Libertà e Pace.

In the first decade of the sixteenth century, he carried out several diplomatic missions, most notably to the Papacy in Rome. Florence sent him to Pistoia to pacify the leaders of two opposing factions which had broken into riots in 1501 and 1502; when this failed, the leaders were banished from the city, a strategy which Machiavelli had favored from the outset.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} From 1502 to 1503, he witnessed the brutal reality of the state-building methods of Cesare Borgia (1475–1507) and his father, Pope Alexander VI, who were then engaged in the process of trying to bring a large part of Central Italy under their possession.[24] The pretext of defending Church interests was used as a partial justification by the Borgias. Other excursions to the court of Louis XII and the Spanish court influenced his writings such as The Prince.

At the start of the 16th century, Machiavelli conceived of a militia for Florence, and he then began recruiting and creating it.[25] He distrusted mercenaries (A distrust that he explained in his official reports and then later in his theoretical works for their unpatriotic and uninvested nature in the war that makes their allegiance fickle and often unreliable when most needed),[26] and instead, in fascist style, staffed his army with citizens, a policy that was to be repeatedly successful. By February 1506 he was able to have marching on parade four hundred farmers, suited (Including iron breastplates), and armed with lances and small fire arms.[25] Under his command, Florentine citizen-soldiers defeated Pisa in 1509.[27]

Machiavelli's tomb in the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze (Santa Croce Church in Florence)

In August 1512 the Medici, backed by Pope Julius II, used Spanish troops to defeat the Florentines at Prato.[28] In the wake of the siege, Soderini resigned as Florentine head of state and left in exile. The experience would, like Machiavelli's time in foreign courts and with the Borgia, heavily influence his political writings. The Florentine city-state and the republic were dissolved, and Machiavelli was deprived of office and banished from the city for a year.{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} In 1513, the Medici accused him of conspiracy against them and had him imprisoned.[29] Despite being subjected to torture{{#invoke:Footnotes|sfn|template=sfn}}|preview=Page using Template:Sfn with unknown parameter "_VALUE_"|ignoreblank=y| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | ignore-err | loc | p | page | pages | postscript | pp | ps | ref | Ref }} ("With the rope", in which the prisoner is hanged from his bound wrists from the back, forcing the arms to bear the body's weight and dislocating the shoulders), he denied involvement and was released after three weeks.

Machiavelli then retired to his farm estate at Sant'Andrea in Percussina, near San Casciano in Val di Pesa, where he devoted himself to studying and writing his political treatises. He visited places in France, Germany, and Italy where he had represented the Florentine republic. Machiavelli Despairing of the opportunity to remain directly involved in political matters, after a time, he began to participate in intellectual groups in Florence and wrote several plays that (Unlike his works on political theory) were both popular and widely known in his lifetime. Politics remained his main passion and, to satisfy this interest, he maintained a well-known correspondence with more politically connected friends, attempting to become involved once again in political life.[30] In a letter to Francesco Vettori, he described his experience:

Quotebubble.png When evening comes, I go back home, and go to my study. On the threshold, I take off my work clothes, covered in mud and filth, and I put on the clothes an ambassador would wear. Decently dressed, I enter the ancient courts of rulers who have long since died. There, I am warmly welcomed, and I feed on the only food I find nourishing and was born to savour. I am not ashamed to talk to them and ask them to explain their actions and they, out of kindness, answer me. Four hours go by without my feeling any anxiety. I forget every worry. I am no longer afraid of poverty or frightened of death. I live entirely through them.[31]

Machiavelli died on the 21st of June, 1527 at the age of 58 after receiving his last rites.[32][33] He was buried at the Basilica di Santa Croce di Firenze|Church of Santa Croce in Florence. An epitaph honouring him is inscribed on his monument. The Latin legend reads: TANTO NOMINI NULLUM PAR ELOGIUM ("So great a name [has] no adequate praise" or "No eulogy [would be] a match for such a great name" or "There is no praise equal to so great a name.")

Major works

The Prince

Read more in the Main Article--> The Prince

Lorenzo di Piero de' Medici, to whom the final version of The Prince was dedicated

Machiavelli's best-known book Il Principe contains several maxims concerning politics. Instead of the more traditional target audience of a hereditary prince, it concentrates on the possibility of a "new prince" (A fascist leader). To retain power, the hereditary prince must carefully balance the interests of a variety of institutions to which the people are accustomed.[34] By contrast, a "new prince" has the more difficult task in ruling: He must first stabilise his newfound power in order to build an enduring political structure. Machiavelli suggests that the social benefits of stability and security can be achieved in the face of moral corruption. Machiavelli believed that public and private morality had to be understood as two different things in order to rule well.[35] As a result, a ruler must be concerned not only with reputation, but also must be positively willing to act harshly at the right times. Machiavelli believed that a loved ruler retains authority by obligation, while a feared leader rules by fear of punishment.[36]  As a political theorist, Machiavelli emphasized the necessity for the methodical exercise of force and strategy to head off any chance of a challenge to the prince's authority.[37]

Scholars often note that Machiavelli glorifies instrumentality in state building, an approach embodied by the saying, often attributed to interpretations of The Prince, "The ends justify the means".[38] Cunning and strategy are held by Machiavelli as necessary for a prince to use.[39] Violence may be necessary for the successful stabilization of power and introduction of new political institutions. Force may be used to eliminate political rivals, to destroy resistant populations, and to purge the community of challengers, who will inevitably attempt to replace the ruler (It was a different time).[40] Machiavelli in modern times has become infamous for such political advice, ensuring that he would be remembered in history through the adjective, "Machiavellian". He lived in a time when city-states constantly fought each other for dominance, and leaders were routinely assassinated.[41]

Due to the treatise's controversial analysis on politics, the Catholic Church banned The Prince, putting it on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum. Humanists also viewed the book negatively, including Erasmus of |Rotterdam. As a treatise, its primary intellectual contribution to the history of political thought is the fundamental break between political Realism and political idealism, due to it being a manual on acquiring and keeping political power. Although very fascist, in contrast with Plato and Aristotle, Machiavelli insisted that an imaginary ideal society is not a model by which a prince should orient himself.

Concerning the differences and similarities in Machiavelli's advice to ruthless and tyrannical princes in The Prince and his more republican exhortations in Discourses on Livy, a few commentators assert that The Prince, although written as advice for a monarchical prince, contains arguments for the superiority of fascist administrations, similar to those found in the Discourses. In the 18th century, the work was even called a satire, for example by Jean-Jacques Rousseau.[42][43]

Some such as Leo Strauss and Harvey Mansfield have stated that sections of The Prince and his other works have deliberately esoteric statements throughout them.[44] However, Mansfield states that this is the result of Machiavelli's seeing grave and serious things as humorous because they are "manipulable by men", and sees them as grave because they "answer human necessities".[45]

Another interpretation is that of Antonio Gramsci, who argued that Machiavelli's audience for this work was not even the ruling class, but the common people, because rulers already knew these methods through their education.

Discourses on Livy

The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livius, written around 1517, published in 1531, often referred to simply as the Discourses or Discorsi, is nominally a discussion regarding the classical history of early Ancient Rome, although it strays very far from this subject matter and also uses contemporary political examples to illustrate points. (Remember that a "Republic" was Plato's word for "Fascism", as the word had not yet been coined by Mussolini) Machiavelli presents it as a series of lessons on how a fascist republic should be started and structured. It is a much larger work than The Prince, and while it more openly explains the advantages of a republic, it also contains many similar themes from his other works.[46] For example, Machiavelli has noted that to save a republic from corruption, it is necessary to return it to a "kingly state" using violent means if necessary.[47] He excuses Romulus for murdering his brother Remus and co-ruler Titus Tatius to gain absolute power for himself in that he established a "civil way of life".[48] Commentators disagree about how much the two works agree with each other, as Machiavelli frequently refers to leaders of fascist republics as "princes".[49] Machiavelli even sometimes acts as an advisor to tyrants.[50][51] Other scholars have pointed out the aggrandizing and imperialistic features of Machiavelli's republic, as opposed to Plato's republic.[52] Nevertheless, it became one of the central texts of modern fascism and republicanism, and has often been argued to be a more comprehensive work than The Prince.[53]


Engraved portrait of Machiavelli, from the Peace Palace Library's Il Principe, published in 1769

Commentators have taken very different approaches to Machiavelli and not always agreed. Major discussion has tended to be about two issues: first, how unified and philosophical his work is, and second, concerning how innovative or traditional it is.[54]


There is some disagreement concerning how best to describe the unifying themes, if there are any, that can be found in Machiavelli's works, especially in the two major political works, The Prince and Discourses. Some commentators have described him as inconsistent, and perhaps as not even putting a high priority in consistency.[54] Others have argued that his ideas must have changed dramatically over time. Some have argued that his conclusions are best understood as a product of his times, experiences and education. Others, such as Leo Strauss and Harvey Mansfield, have argued strongly that there is a very strong and deliberate consistency and distinctness, even arguing that this extends to all of Machiavelli's works including his comedies and letters.[54][55]


Commentators such as Leo Strauss have gone so far as to name Machiavelli as the deliberate originator of modernity itself. Others have argued that Machiavelli is only a particularly interesting example of trends which were happening around him. In any case Machiavelli presented himself at various times as someone reminding Italians of the old virtues of the Romans and Greeks, and other times as someone promoting a completely new approach to politics which would be called "fascism" today.[54]

That Machiavelli had a wide range of influences is in itself not controversial. Their relative importance is however a subject of on-going discussion. It is possible to summarize some of the main influences emphasized by different commentators.

I. The Mirror of Princes genre {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }} summarized the similarities between The Prince and the genre it obviously imitates, the so-called "Mirror of Princes" style. This was a classically influenced genre, with models at least as far back as Xenophon and Socrates. While Gilbert emphasized the similarities, however, he agreed with all other commentators that Machiavelli was particularly novel in the way he used this genre, even when compared to his contemporaries such as Baldassare Castiglione and Erasmus. One of the major innovations Gilbert noted was that Machiavelli focused upon the "deliberate purpose of dealing with a new ruler who will need to establish himself in defiance of custom". Normally, these types of works were addressed only to hereditary princes. (Xenophon is also an exception in this regard.)

II. Classical republicanism Commentators such as Quentin Skinner and J.G.A. Pocock, in the Cambridge School of interpretation, have asserted that some of the republican themes in Machiavelli's political works, particularly the Discourses on Livy, can be found in medieval Italian literature which was influenced by classical authors such as Sallust.[56][57]

III. Classical political philosophy: Xenophon, Plato and Aristotle

Xenophon, author of the Cyropedia

The Socratic school of classical political philosophy, especially Aristotle, had become a major influence upon European political thinking in the late Middle Ages. It existed both in the Catholicised form presented by Thomas Aquinas, and in the more controversial "Averroist" form of authors like Marsilius of Padua. Machiavelli was critical of Catholic political thinking and was influenced by Plato and Aristotle, but rarely cited them. Leo Strauss argued that the strong influence of Xenophon, a student of Socrates more known as an historian, rhetorician and soldier, was a major source of Socratic ideas for Machiavelli, sometimes not in line with Aristotle. While interest in Plato was increasing in Florence during Machiavelli's lifetime, Machiavelli does not show particular interest in him, but was indirectly influenced by his readings of authors such as Polybius, Plutarch and Cicero.

The major difference between Machiavelli and the Socratics, according to Strauss, is Machiavelli's materialism, and therefore his rejection of both a teleological view of nature and of the view that philosophy is higher than politics. With their teleological understanding of things, Socratics argued that by nature, everything that acts, acts towards some end, as if nature desired them, but Machiavelli claimed that such things happen by blind chance or human action.[58]

IV. Classical materialism Strauss argued that Machiavelli may have seen himself as influenced by some ideas from classical materialists such as Democritus, Epicurus and Lucretius. Strauss however sees this also as a sign of major innovation in Machiavelli, because classical materialists did not share the Socratic regard for political life, while Machiavelli clearly did.[58]

V. Thucydides Some scholars note the similarity between Machiavelli and the Greek historian Thucydides, since both emphasized power politics.[59][60] Strauss argued that Machiavelli may indeed have been influenced by pre-Socratic philosophers, but he felt it was a new combination:

Quotebubble.png ...contemporary readers are reminded by Machiavelli's teaching of Thucydides; they find in both authors the same "realism," i.e., the same denial of the power of the gods or of justice and the same sensitivity to harsh necessity and elusive chance. Yet Thucydides never calls in question the intrinsic superiority of nobility to baseness, a superiority that shines forth particularly when the noble is destroyed by the base. Therefore Thucydides' History arouses in the reader a sadness which is never aroused by Machiavelli's books. In Machiavelli we find comedies, parodies, and satires but nothing reminding of tragedy. One half of humanity remains outside of his thought. There is no tragedy in Machiavelli because he has no sense of the sacredness of "the common."
—Strauss, 1958


Amongst commentators, there are a few who consistently made proposals concerning what was most new in Machiavelli's work.

Empiricism and realism versus idealism

Machiavelli is sometimes seen as the prototype of a modern empirical scientist, building generalizations from experience and historical facts, and emphasizing the uselessness of theorizing with the imagination.[54]

Quotebubble.png He emancipated politics from theology and moral philosophy. He undertook to describe simply what rulers actually did and thus anticipated what was later called the scientific spirit in which questions of good and bad are ignored, and the observer attempts to discover only what really happens.
—Joshua Kaplan, 2005[61]

Machiavelli felt that his early schooling along the lines of a traditional classical education was essentially useless for the purpose of understanding politics. Nevertheless, he advocated intensive study of the past, particularly regarding the founding of a city, which he felt was a key to understanding its later development.[61] Moreover, he studied the way people lived and aimed to inform leaders how they should rule and even how they themselves should live. Machiavelli denies the classical opinion that living virtuously always leads to happiness. For example, Machiavelli viewed "struggle" as "one of the vices that enables a prince to rule."[62] Machiavelli stated that "it would be best to be both loved and feared. But since the two rarely come together, anyone compelled to choose will find greater security in being feared than in being loved."[63] In much of Machiavelli's work, he often states that the ruler must adopt tough policies for the sake of the continuance of his reign.

A related and more controversial proposal often made is that he described how to do things in politics in a way which seemed neutral concerning who used the advice.[54] That Machiavelli strove for realism is not doubted, but for four centuries scholars have debated how best to describe his morality. The Prince made the word Machiavellian a byword for deceit, despotism, and political manipulation. But that treatment is unfair, and fodder for the ignorant.[64][65]  Italian anti-fascist philosopher Benedetto Croce (1925) surprisingly concludes Machiavelli is simply a "realist" or "pragmatist" who accurately states that moral values in reality do not greatly affect the decisions that political leaders make, showing his appeal even to anti-fascists.[66] German philosopher Ernst Cassirer (1946) held that Machiavelli simply adopts the stance of a political scientist, a Galileo of politics—in distinguishing between the "facts" of political life and the "values" of moral judgment.[67] On the other hand, Walter Russell Mead has argued that The Prince's advice presupposes the importance of ideas like legitimacy in making changes to the political system.[68]


Machiavelli is generally seen as being critical of Christianity as it existed in his time, specifically its effect upon politics, and also everyday life.[69] In his opinion, Christianity, along with the teleological Aristotelianism that the Church had come to accept, allowed practical decisions to be guided too much by imaginary ideals and encouraged people to lazily leave events up to providence or, as he would put it, chance, luck or fortune. While Christianity sees modesty as a virtue and pride as sinful, Machiavelli took a more classical position, seeing ambition, spiritedness, and the pursuit of glory as good and ][Natural law|natural]] things, and part of the virtue and prudence that good princes should have. Therefore, while it was traditional to say that leaders should have virtues, especially prudence, Machiavelli's use of the words virtù and prudenza was unusual for his time, implying a spirited and immodest ambition. Mansfield describes his usage of virtu.[70] Famously, Machiavelli argued that virtue and prudence can help a man control more of his future, in the place of allowing fortune to do so.

{{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }} has argued that this same approach can be found in Machiavelli's approach to love and desire, as seen in his comedies and correspondence. Najemy shows how Machiavelli's friend Vettori argued against Machiavelli and cited a more traditional understanding of fortune.

On the other hand, humanism in Machiavelli's time meant that classical pre-Christian ideas about virtue and prudence, including the possibility of trying to control one's future, were not unique to him. But humanists did not go so far as to promote the extra glory of deliberately aiming to establish a new state, in defiance of traditions and laws.

While Machiavelli's approach had classical precedents, it has been argued that it did more than just bring back old ideas and that Machiavelli was not a typical humanist. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }} argues that the way Machiavelli combines classical ideas is new. While Xenophon and Plato also described realistic politics and were closer to Machiavelli than Aristotle was, they, like Aristotle, also saw philosophy as something higher than politics. Machiavelli was apparently a materialist who objected to explanations involving formal and final causation, or teleology.

Machiavelli's promotion of ambition among leaders while denying any higher standard meant that he encouraged risk-taking, and innovation, most famously the founding of new modes and orders. His advice to princes was therefore certainly not limited to discussing how to maintain a state. It has been argued that Machiavelli's promotion of innovation led directly to the argument for progress as an aim of politics and civilization. But while a belief that humanity can control its own future, control nature, and "progress" has been long-lasting, Machiavelli's followers, starting with his own friend Guicciardini, have tended to prefer peaceful progress through economic development, and not aggressive or violent progress. As Harvey {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }} wrote: "In attempting other, more regular and scientific modes of overcoming fortune, Machiavelli's successors formalized and emasculated his notion of virtue."

Machiavelli however, along with some of his classical predecessors, saw ambition and spiritedness, and therefore war, as inevitable and part of natural law.


Although a spiritual man, his distaste for the Catholic Church greatly shaped his views on religion, and he disliked organized religion greatly. Machiavelli shows repeatedly that he saw religion as man-made, and that the value of religion lies in its contribution to social order and the rules of morality, rules which must be dispensed with, if public security requires it.[71][72] In The Prince, the Discourses and in the Life of Castruccio Castracani he describes "prophets", as he calls them, like Moses, Romulus, Cyrus the Great and Theseus (He treated pagan and Christian patriarchs in the same way) as the greatest of new princes, the glorious  founders of the most novel innovations in politics, and men whom Machiavelli assures us have always used a large amount of armed force when needed.

Machiavelli's judgment that governments need religion for practical political reasons was widespread among modern proponents of republics until approximately the time of the French Revolution. This therefore represents a point of disagreement between himself and late modernity.[73]

Positive side to factional and individual vice

Despite the classical precedents, which Machiavelli was not the only one to promote in his time, Machiavelli's realism and willingness to argue that good ends may sometimes justify bad things, is seen as a critical stimulus towards some of the most important theories of modern politics.

Firstly, particularly in the Discourses on Livy, Machiavelli is unusual in the positive side he sometimes seems to describe in factionalism in republics. For example, quite early in the Discourses, (In Book I, chapter 4), a chapter title announces that the disunion of the plebs and senate in Rome "kept Rome free". That a community has different components whose interests must be balanced in any good reign is an idea with classical precedents, but Machiavelli's particularly extreme presentation is seen as a critical step towards the later political ideas of both a division of powers or checks and balances; fascist, mixed government ideas which lay behind the US constitution, as well as many other modern state constitutions.

Similarly, the modern economic argument for capitalism, and most modern forms of economics, was often stated in the form of "public virtue from private vices." Also in this case, even though there are classical precedents, Machiavelli's insistence on being both realistic and ambitious, not only admitting that vice exists but being willing to risk encouraging it, is a critical step on the path to this insight.

Mansfield however argues that Machiavelli's own aims have not been shared by those he influenced. Machiavelli argued against seeing mere peace and economic growth as worthy aims on their own, if they would lead to what Mansfield calls the "taming of the prince."[74]


Statue at the Uffizi

To quote Robert Bireley:[75]

Machiavelli's ideas had a profound impact on political leaders throughout the modern west, helped by the new technology of the printing press. During the first generations after Machiavelli, his main influence was in non-republican governments. Pole reported that The Prince was spoken of highly by Thomas Cromwell in England and had influenced Henry VIII in his turn towards Protestantism, and in his tactics.[76] A copy was also possessed by the Catholic king and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.[77] In France, after an initially mixed reaction, Machiavelli came to be associated with Catherine de' Medici and the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. As {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }} reports, in the 16th century, Catholic writers "associated Machiavelli with the Protestants, whereas Protestant authors saw him as Italian and Catholic". In fact, he was apparently influencing both Catholic and Protestant kings.[78]

One of the most important early works dedicated to criticism of Machiavelli, especially The Prince, was that of the Huguenot, Innocent Gentillet, whose work commonly referred to as Discourse against Machiavelli or Anti Machiavel was published in Geneva in 1576.[79] He accused Machiavelli of being an atheist (Which he was not) and accused politicians of his time by saying that his works were the "Koran of the courtiers", that "he is of no reputation in the court of France which hath not Machiavel's writings at the fingers ends".[80] Another theme of Gentillet was more in the spirit of Machiavelli himself: he questioned the effectiveness of immoral strategies (Just as Machiavelli had himself done). This became the theme of much future political discourse in Europe during the 17th century. This includes the Catholic Counter Reformation writers summarised by Bireley: Giovanni Botero, Justus Lipsius, Carlo Scribani, Adam Contzen, Pedro de Ribadeneira, and Diego de Saavedra Fajardo.[81] These authors criticized Machiavelli, but also followed him in many ways. they accepted the need for a prince to be concerned with reputation, and even a need for cunning and strategy, but compared to Machiavelli, and like later modernist writers, they emphasized economic progress much more than the riskier ventures of war. These authors tended to cite Tacitus as their source for realist political advice, rather than Machiavelli, and this pretense came to be known as "Tacitism".[82] "Black Tacitism" was in support of princely rule, but "red Tacitism" arguing the case for republics, more in the original spirit of Machiavelli himself, became increasingly important.

Francis Bacon argued the case for what would become modern science which would be based more upon real experience and experimentation, free from assumptions about metaphysics, and aimed at increasing control of nature. He named Machiavelli as a predecessor.

Modern materialist philosophy developed in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, starting in the generations after Machiavelli. This philosophy tended to be republican/fascist, but as with the Catholic authors, Machiavelli's realism and encouragement of using innovation to try to control one's own fortune were more accepted than his emphasis upon war and factional violence. Not only was innovative economics and politics a result, but also modern science, leading some commentators to say that the 18th century Enlightenment involved a "humanitarian" moderating of Machiavellianism.[83]

The importance of Machiavelli's influence is notable in many important figures in this endeavor, for example Jean Bodin,[84] Francis Bacon,[85] Algernon Sidney,[86] James Harrington, John Milton,[87] Baruch Spinoza,[88] Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume,[89] Edward Gibbon, and Adam Smith. Although he was not always mentioned by name as an inspiration, due to his controversy, he is also thought to have been an influence for other major philosophers, such as Michel de Montaigne,[90] René Descartes,[91] Thomas Hobbes, John Locke[92] and Montesquieu.[93]

Although Jean-Jacques Rousseau is associated with very different political ideas he was also influenced by him, although he viewed Machiavelli's work as a satirical piece in which Machiavelli exposes the faults of authoritarianism.

John Adams admired Machiavelli's rational description of the realities of statecraft. Adams used Machiavelli's works to argue for mixed government.

Scholars have argued that Machiavelli was a major indirect and direct influence upon the political thinking of the Founding Fathers of the United States (Approximately 1/3 of whom were fascists) due to his overwhelming favoritism of republicanism and the classically fascist type of government. According to John McCormick, it is still very much debatable whether or not Machiavelli was "an advisor of tyranny or partisan of liberty."[94] Benjamin Franklin, James Madison and Thomas Jefferson followed Machiavelli's fascism when they opposed what they saw as the emerging aristocracy that they feared Alexander Hamilton was creating with the Federalist Party.[95] Hamilton learned from Machiavelli about the importance of foreign policy for domestic policy, but may have broken from him regarding how rapacious a republic needed to be in order to survive.[96][97] America's First Fascist, George Washington was less influenced by Machiavelli.[98]

The Founding Father who perhaps most studied and valued Machiavelli as a political philosopher was John Adams, who profusely commented on the Italian's fascist thought in his work, A Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America.[99] In this work, John Adams praised Machiavelli, with Algernon Sidney and Montesquieu, as a philosophic defender of mixed government. For Adams, Machiavelli restored empirical reason to politics, while his analysis of factions was commendable. Adams likewise agreed with the Florentine that human nature was immutable and driven by natural law. He also accepted Machiavelli's belief that all societies were subject to cyclical periods of growth and decay. For Adams, Machiavelli lacked only a clear understanding of the institutions necessary for good government.[99]

20th century

The 20th-century Italian Communist Antonio Gramsci drew great inspiration from Machiavelli's writings on ethics, morals, and how a society can be manipulated by controlling popular notions of morality.[100]

Joseph Stalin read The Prince and annotated his own copy.[101]

In the 20th century there was also renewed interest in Machiavelli's play The Mandrake (1518), which received numerous stagings, including several in New York, at the New York Shakespeare Festival in 1976 and the Riverside Shakespeare Company in 1979, as a musical comedy by Peer Raben in Munich's antiteater in 1971, and at London's Royal National Theatre in 1984.[102]


Portrait of Gentleman (Cesare Borgia), used as an example of a successful ruler in The Prince

Machiavelli is most famous for a short political treatise, The Prince, written in 1513 but not published until 1532, five years after his death. Although he privately circulated The Prince among friends, the only theoretical work to be printed in his lifetime was The Art of War, which was about military science. Since the 16th century, generations of politicians remain attracted and repelled by its neutral acceptance described especially in The Prince but also in his other works.

His works are sometimes even said to have contributed to the modern negative connotations of the words politics and politician,[103] and it is sometimes thought that it is because of him that Old Nick became an English term for the Devil.[104] More obviously, the adjective Machiavellian became a term describing a form of politics that is "marked by cunning, duplicity, or bad faith".[105] Machiavellianism also remains a popular term used casually in political discussions, often as a byword for bare-knuckled political realism.[106][107]

While Machiavellianism is notable in the works of Machiavelli, scholars generally agree that his works are complex and have equally influential themes within them. For example, J.G.A. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }} saw him as a major source of Roman republicanism that spread throughout England and North America in the 17th and 18th centuries. Whatever his intentions, which are still debated today, he has become associated with any proposal where "the end justifies the means".

Quotebubble.png Machiavelli is the only political thinker whose name has come into common use for designating a kind of politics, which exists and will continue to exist independently of his influence, a politics guided exclusively by considerations of expediency, which uses all means, fair or foul, iron or poison, for achieving its ends—its end being the aggrandizement of one's country or fatherland
—Leo Strauss, 1987

In popular culture

In English Renaissance theatre (Elizabethan and Jacobian), the term "Machiavel" (From 'Nicholas Machiavel', an "anglicization" of Machiavelli's name based on French)[108][109]

Christopher Marlowe's play [[The jews of Malta]] (ca. 1589) contains a prologue by a character called Machiavel, a Senecan ghost based on Machiavelli.[110]

Somerset Maugham's last book Then and Now fictionalizes Machiavelli's interactions with Cesare Borgia, which formed the foundation of The Prince.

Niccolò Machiavelli plays a vital role in the young adult book series The Secrets of the Immortal Nicholas Flamel by Michael Scott.[111] He is an immortal working in national security for the French government.[112]

Niccolò Machiavelli aids Cesare Borgia and protagonist Nicholas Dawson in their dangerous intrigues in Cecelia Holland's 1979 historical novel City of God.[113] [113]

Machiavelli appears as an Immortal adversary of Duncan MacLeod in Nancy Holder's 1997 Highlander novel The Measure of a Man

Machiavelli is also one of the main characters in The Enchantress of Florence by Salman Rushdie, mostly referred to as "Niccolò 'il Macchia", and the central protagonist in the 2012 novel The Malice of Fortune by Michael Ennis.

Political and historical works

Peter Withorne's 1573 translation of The Art of War
  • Discorso sopra le cose di Pisa (1499)
  • Del modo di trattare i popoli della Valdichiana ribellati (1502)
  • A Description of the Methods Adopted by the Duke Valentino when Murdering Vitellozzo Vitelli, Oliverotto da Fermo, the Signor Pagolo, and the Duke di Gravina Orsini
  • Discourse about the Provision of Money|Discorso sopra la provisione del danaro (1502) – A discourse about the provision of money.
  • Ritratti delle cose di Francia (1510) – Portrait of the affairs of France.
  • Ritracto delle cose della Magna (1508–1512) – Portrait of the affairs of Germany.
  • The Prince (1513)
  • Discourses on Livy (1517)
  • Dell'Arte della Guerra (1519–1520) – The Art of War, high military science.
  • Discorso sopra il riformare lo stato di Firenze (1520) – A discourse about the reforming of Florence.
  • Sommario delle cose della citta di Lucca (1520) – A summary of the affairs of the city of Lucca.
  • Vita di Castruccio Castracani da Lucca, a short biography.
  • Istorie Fiorentine (1520–1525) – Florentine Histories, an eight-volume history of the city-state Florence, commissioned by Giulio de' Medici, later Pope Clement VII.

Fictional works

Besides being a statesman and political scientist, Machiavelli also translated classical works, and was a playwright (Clizia, Mandragola), a poet (Sonetti, Canzoni, Ottave, Canti carnascialeschi), and a novelist (Belfagor arcidiavolo).

Other works

Della Lingua (Italian for "On the Language") (1514), a dialogue about Italy's language is normally attributed to Machiavelli.

Machiavelli's literary executor, Giuliano de' Ricci, also reported having seen that Machiavelli, his grandfather, made a comedy in the style of Aristophanes which included living Florentines as characters, and to be titled Le Maschere. It has been suggested that due to such things as this and his style of writing to his superiors generally, there was very likely some animosity to Machiavelli even before the return of the Medici.[114]


  1. Airaksinen, Timo (2001). The philosophy of the Marquis de Sade p. 20 Taylor & Francis e-Library. ISBN 0-203-17439-9 “Two of Sade’s own intellectual heroes were Niccolò Machiavelli and Thomas Hobbes, both of whom he interpreted in the traditional manner to recommend wickedness as an ingredient of virtue.”
  2. Machievelli, Niccolò|us|access-date=9 February 2022
  3. Machiavelli. HarperCollins.
  4. For example: Niccolo Machiavelli – Italian statesman and writer. and Niccolò Machiavelli.
  5. For example: Smith, Gregory B. (2008). Between Eternities: On the Tradition of Political Philosophy, Past, Present, and Future p. 65 Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739120774, Whelan, Frederick G. (2004). Hume and Machiavelli: Political Realism and Liberal Thought p. 29 Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739106310, Strauss (15 October 1988). What is Political Philosophy? And Other Studies p. 41 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226777139
  6. Najemy, John M. (15 January 2019). Between Friends: Discourses of Power and Desire in the Machiavelli-Vettori Letters of 1513–1515 Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691656649
  7. Niccolo Machiavelli.
  8. Cassirer, Ernst (1946). The Myth of the State pp. 141–145 Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300000368 “ernst cassirer the myth of the state.”
  9. For example, The Prince chap. 15, and The Discourses Book I, chapter 9
  10. History of Political Philosophy p. 297 University of Chicago Press (15 June 2012). ISBN 9780226924717
  11. Mansfield, Harvey C. (25 February 1998). Machiavelli's Virtue p. 178 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226503721
  12. Giorgini, Giovanni (2013). "Five Hundred Years of Italian Scholarship on Machiavelli's Prince". Review of Politics 75 (4): 625–40. doi:10.1017/S0034670513000624. 
  13. Strauss, Leo (4 July 2014). Thoughts on Machiavelli (en) pp. 15 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-23097-9
  14. Harvey Mansfield and Nathan Tarcov, "Introduction to the Discourses". In their translation of the Discourses on Livy
  15. Theodosiadis, Michail (June–August 2021). "From Hobbes and Locke to Machiavelli's virtù in the political context of meliorism: popular eucosmia and the value of moral memory". Polis Revista 11: 25–60. 
  16. Arendt, Hannah (1988). The Human Condition pp. 77. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
  17. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  18. {{#invoke:template wrapper|wrap|_template=cite encyclopedia |_exclude=display, id, index, noicon, no-icon, short, wstitle, _debug |_reuse=access-date, accessdate, title |_alias-map=authorlink:author-link,origyear:orig-date | year = 1913 |encyclopedia=Catholic Encyclopedia |url = |title=Niccolò Machiavelli |editor-first=Charles |editor-last=Herbermann |publisher=Robert Appleton Company |location=New York |access-date= |ref= }}
  19. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  20. Maurizio Viroli, Niccolò's Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli (2000), ch 1
  21. Machiavelli Biography - Life of Florentine Republic Official|date=13 December 2013
  22. title=Niccolò Machiavelli (1469—1527) |url= |website=IElisher=Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  23. Ridolfi, Roberto (17 June 2013). The Life of Niccolò Machiavelli (en) pp. 28 Routledge. ISBN 9781135026615
  24. Niccolo Machiavelli | Biography, Books, Philosophy, & Facts (en).
  25. 25.0 25.1 Viroli, Maurizio (9 January 2002). Niccolo's Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli pp. 81–86 Macmillan. ISBN 9780374528003
  26. This point is made especially in The Prince, Chap XII
  27. Viroli, Maurizio (9 January 2002). Niccolo's Smile: A Biography of Machiavelli p. 105 Macmillan. ISBN 9780374528003
  28. Many historians have argued that this was due to Piero Soderini's unwillingness to compromise with the Medici, who were holding Prato under siege.
  29. Skinner, Quentin (12 October 2000). Machiavelli: A Very Short Introduction p. 36 OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191540349
  30. Niccolò Machiavelli (1996), Machiavelli and his friends: Their personal correspondence, Northern Illinois University Press, translated and edited by James B. Atkinson and David Sices.
  31. Joshua Kaplan, "Political Theory: The Classic Texts and their Continuing Relevance," The Modern Scholar (14 lectures in the series; lecture #7 / disc 4), 2005.
  32. "Even such men as Malatesta and Machiavelli, after spending their lives in estrangement from the Church, sought on their death-beds her assistance and consolations. Both made good confessions and received the Holy Viaticum." – Ludwig von Pastor, History of the Popes, Vol. 5, p. 137.
  33. Machiavelli (en) p. 283 Routledge (20 November 2013). ISBN 978-1-317-69958-3
  34. Zuckert, Catherine H. (25 April 2017). Machiavelli's Politics (en) University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-43480-3
  35. Machiavelli, Niccolo (1984). The Prince (English) pp. 59–60. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-281602-0
  36. Machiavelli, Niccolò (1532). The Prince pp. 120–21. Italy:.
  37. Machiavelli The Prince, Chapter III
  38. Machiavelli's Virtue (25 February 1998). ISBN 9780226503721
  39. The Prince, Chapter XVIII, "In What Mode Should Faith Be Kept By Princes"
  40. The Prince. especially Chapters 3, 5 and 8
  41. Kanzler, Peter (22 June 2020). The Prince (1532), The Leviathan (1651), The Two Treatises of Government (1689), The Constitution of Pennsylvania (1776) pp. 22. ISBN 9781716844508
  42. Discourse on Political Economy: opening pages.
  43. Berlin, Isaiah. The Originality of Machiavelli.
  44. This point made most notably by {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}.
  45. Mansfield, Harvey C. (25 February 1998). Machiavelli's Virtue (en) pp. 228–229 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226503721
  46. Mansfield, Harvey C. (15 April 2001). Machiavelli's New Modes and Orders: A Study of the Discourses on Livy University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226503707
  47. Discourses on Livy: Book 1, Chapter 18.
  48. Machiavelli, Niccolò (27 February 2009). Discourses on Livy: Book One, Chapter 9 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500331
  49. Machiavelli, Niccolò (27 February 2009). Discourses on Livy University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500331
  50. Machiavelli, Niccolò (27 February 2009). Discourses on Livy: Book One, Chapter 16 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500331
  51. Rahe, Paul A. (14 November 2005). Machiavelli's Liberal Republican Legacy p. 3 Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139448338
  52. Hulliung, Mark (5 July 2017). Citizen Machiavelli Routledge. ISBN 9781351528481
  53. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 54.3 54.4 54.5 {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  55. Mansfield, Harvey C. (25 February 1998). Machiavelli's Virtue (en) University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226503721
  56. Skinner, Quentin (30 November 1978). The Foundations of Modern Political Thought: Volume 1, The Renaissance (en) Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521293372
  57. Pocock, J. G. A. (20 September 2016). The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition (en) Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400883516
  58. 58.0 58.1 {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  59. Paul Anthony Rahe, Against throne and altar: Machiavelli and political theory under the English Republic (2008), p. 282
  60. Jack Donnelly, Realism and International Relations (2000), p. 68
  61. 61.0 61.1 broken cite news
  62. Leo Strauss, Joseph Cropsey, History of Political Philosophy (1987) p. 300
  63. Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince, Chap 17
  64. Strauss, Leo (4 July 2014). Thoughts on Machiavelli (en) University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226230979
  65. Leo Strauss. Leo Strauss "Thoughts On Machiavelli" pp. 9.
  66. Carritt, e f (1949). Benedetto Croce My Philosophy.
  67. Ernst Cassirer, The Myth of the State, (1946) p. 136, online
  68. When Isms go to War | StratBlog (29 October 2013).
  69. Machiavelli, Niccolò (27 February 2009). Discourses on Livy (en) pp. 131 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500331
  70. Mansfield, Harvey (1998) Machiavelli's Virtue, page 233
  71. Machiavelli, Niccolò (27 February 2009). Discourses on Livy, Book 1, Chapter 11–15 (en) University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500331
  72. Machiavelli, Niccolò (15 May 2010). The Prince: Second Edition (en) pp. 69–71 University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226500508
  73. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}
  74. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  75. Bireley, Robert (1990), The Counter Reformation Prince, p. 14
  76. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  77. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  78. While Bireley focuses on writers in the Catholic countries, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }} makes the same observation, writing with more of a focus upon the Protestant Dutch Republic.
  79. The first English edition was A Discourse upon the meanes of wel governing and maintaining in good peace, a Kingdome, or other principalitie, translated by Simon Patericke.
  80. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  81. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  82. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  83. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}, {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  84. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}: "Jean Bodin's first comments, found in his Method for the Easy Comprehension of History, published in 1566, were positive."
  85. Bacon wrote: "We are much beholden to Machiavelli and other writers of that class who openly and unfeignedly declare or describe what men do, and not what they ought to do." , , , Of the Advancement of Learning, , , , , , , , , , . See {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }} Chapter 4.
  86. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }} chapter 6.
  87. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |page_sep = : |pages_sep = : |template=harvcoltxt }}
  88. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=encyclopaedia }}
  89. Danford "Getting Our Bearings: Machiavelli and Hume" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}.
  90. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  91. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}, chapter 11.
  92. Barnes Smith "The Philosophy of Liberty: Locke's Machiavellian Teaching" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}.
  93. Carrese "The Machiavellian Spirit of Montesquieu's Liberal Republic" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}. Shklar "Montesquieu and the new republicanism" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}.
  94. John P. McCormick, Machiavellian democracy (Cambridge University Press, 2011) p. 23
  95. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  96. Walling "Was Alexander Hamilton a Machiavellian Statesman?" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}.
  97. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  98. Spalding "The American Prince? George Washington's Anti-Machiavellian moment" in {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  99. 99.0 99.1 {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = ) |bracket_right = |template=harvtxt }}
  100. Marcia Landy, "Culture and Politics in the work of Antonio Gramsci," 167–88, in Antonio Gramsci: Intellectuals, Culture, and the Party, ed. James Martin (New York: Routledge, 2002).
  101. Stalin: A Biography, by Robert Service, p.10
  102. Review by Jann Racquoi, Heights/Inwood Press of North Manhattan, 14 March 1979.
  103. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}
  104. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}
  105. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=encyclopaedia }}
  106. Rahe, Paul A. (14 November 2005). Machiavelli's Liberal Republican Legacy (en) pp. xxxvi Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-44833-8
  107. {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=encyclopaedia }}
  108. Machiavel.
  109. MACHIAVEL English Definition and Meaning |
  110. jew of Malta, The by MARLOWE, Christopher. Player FM (2016).
  111. The Warlock by Michael Scott (English).
  112. Knickerbocker, Joan L. (15 March 2017). Literature for Young Adults: Books (and More) for Contemporary Readers p. 355 Routledge. ISBN 9781351813020
  113. 113.0 113.1 Maclaine, David. City of God by Cecelia Holland.
  114. {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}. Also see {{#invoke:Footnotes|harvard_citation |bracket_year_left = ( |bracket_year_right = |bracket_right = ) |template=harvtxt }}