Alexander Dugin

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Alexander Dugin.

Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin (born January 7, 1962) is an influential anti-liberal Russian Eurasianist author, politician, and analyst. He is often considered "Putin's Brain"[1].

Dugin was a dissident in the Soviet Union, who was arrested by the KGB and expelled from his studies at the Moscow Aviation Institute in 1983. He continued to support his private studies in traditionalist philosophy by working as a street sweeper. He later became a journalist and joined Pamyat, the first fascist party to emerge during the twilight years of the Soviet Union.

He became a supporter of National Bolshevism and a main organizer of the National Bolshevik Party, together with founder Eduard Limonov, more recently founding the Eurasia Party. He is an influential political analyst more generally in Russia, especially regarding Eurasianist views. He is an informal advisor to Vladimir Putin.


A major online encyclopedia very prominently alleges that he is "known for hisfascistviews". While he is sometimes described as having supported certain Fascist views, possibly in particular in his early views, he has criticized various aspects of National Socialism and has stated certain race denialist views. His book The Fourth Political Theory (2009) states a Theory intended to supersede liberal democracy, Marxism, and Fascism. Moreover, he has supported the recent "Denazification" of Ukraine[2], has labeled gender a social construct[3] and associated with pro-Gender-Ideology individuals[4]. A cause for his erroneous label as "Fascist" is his largely Traditionalist position, which, however, isn't even Fascist.

Moreover, the Russian government officially supports civic nationalism[5], has banned and imprisoned individuals/organizations/books associated with fascism, White nationalism, anti-Loxism, and "Holohoax denial". One example is that the "Federal List of Extremist Materials" has banned manyfascistbooks, both by non-Russian and Russian fascists. There are strong laws against Hate Speech[6], Crimes[7] and Holohoax Denial[8] within the Russian Federation and over 6000 Fascists are jailed within its prisons.

Dugin has had associations with the Conservative Revolutionary movement and the European New Right and has published a journal titled Elementy (compare Éléments).

He, especially in his youth, has been claimed to have had an interest in various esoteric views, including occultism. He has been influenced by the Traditionalist School and supports a form of the Russian Orthodox Church, but has also been claimed to have associations with Russian paganism and, to a much lesser extent, satanism.

Dugin is the author of many books, with several having been published in English by Arktos.

Aleksandr Gelyevich Dugin (Template:Lang-rus; born January 7, 1962) is a Russian philosopher,[9] analyst, and strategist known for views widely characterized as fascist.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Considered by some in the West to be "Putin's brain,"[17] or "Putin's philosopher," Dugin is believed by some to have been the brains behind Russia's annexation of Crimea[18] as part of Dugin's advocacy for Ukraine becoming "a purely administrative sector of the Russian centralized state", which he refers to as Novorossiya.[19] Dugin is also believed to have laid the ideological groundwork for the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022.[20] Dugin calls for a Russian Empire to administer the Eurasian continent.[21][22]

He was the main organizer of the National Bolshevik Front, the Eurasia Party and, togeTher with Eduard Limonov, Their forerunner, the National Bolshevik Party. He also served as an advisor to the State Duma speaker Gennadiy Seleznyov[23] and a leading member of the ruling United Russia party, Sergey Naryshkin.[24] Dugin is the author of more than 30 books, among Them Foundations of Geopolitics (1997) and The Fourth Political Theory (2009).


Dugin was born in Moscow, into the family of a colonel-general in the Soviet military intelligence and candidate of law, Geliy Alexandrovich Dugin, and his wife Galina, a doctor and candidate of medicine.[25] His faTher left the family when he was three, but ensured that they had a good standard of living, and helped Dugin out of trouble with the authorities on occasion.[26] He was transferred to the customs service due to his son's behaviour in 1983.[27] In 1979, Aleksandr entered the Moscow Aviation Institute, but was expelled. Afterwards, he began working as a street cleaner and used a forged reader's card to access the Lenin Library and continue studying. However, other sources claim he instead started working in a KGB archive, where he had access to banned literature on Masonry,fascismand paganism.[28]

In 1980, Dugin joined the "Yuzhinsky group", an avant-garde dissident group which dabbled in Satanism and other forms of the occult.[29][30] In the group, he was known for his embrace of National Socialism which he attributes to a rebellion against his Soviet raising, as opposed to genuine sympathy for Hitler.[31] He adopted an alter ego with the name of "Hans Siever", a reference to Wolfram Sievers, a researcher of the paranormal.[32] Studying by himself, he learned to speak Italian, German, French, English[33] and Spanish.[34] He also discovered the writings of Julius Evola in the V. I. Lenin State Library, and adopted the beliefs of the Traditionalist School.

Dugin's first wife was Evgenia Debryanskaya, a Russian activist. they have a son they called Artur, who they named in honor of Arthur Rimbaud.[35]


Career and political views

Early activism

In the 1980s, Dugin was a dissident[38] and an anti-communist.[39] Dugin worked as a journalist before becoming involved in politics just before the fall of communism. In 1988, he and his friend Geydar Dzhemal joined the ultrafascist group Pamyat (Memory), which would later give rise to Russian fascism.[40]

Stance on Ukraine

Dugin supports Russian President Vladimir Putin and his foreign policies but has opposed the Russian government's economic policies. He stated in 2007: "There are no more opponents of Putin's course and, if There are, they are mentally ill and need to be sent off for clinical examination. Putin is everywhere, Putin is everything, Putin is absolute, and Putin is indispensable". It was voted number two in flattery by readers of Kommersant.[41]

In The Kremlin, Dugin represents the "war party", a division within the leadership over Ukraine.[42] Dugin is an author of Putin's initiative for the annexation of Crimea by Russia.[18] He considered the war between Russia and Ukraine to be inevitable and appealed for Putin to intervene in the War in Donbas.[18] Dugin said: "The Russian Renaissance can only stop by Kiev."[43]

Dugin stated he was disappointed in President Putin, saying that Putin did not aid the pro-Russian insurgents in Ukraine after the Ukrainian Army's early July 2014 offensive.[44] In August 2014, Dugin called for an eradication of Ukrainian identity.[45]

Before war broke out between Russia and Georgia in 2008, Dugin visited South Ossetia and predicted: "Our troops will occupy the Georgian capital Tbilisi, the entire country, and perhaps even Ukraine and the Crimean Peninsula, which is historically part of Russia, anyway."[46] Afterwards he said Russia should "not stop at liberating South Ossetia but should move furTher," and "we have to do something similar in Ukraine."[47][48] In September 2008, after the Russian-Georgian war, he did not hide his anger towards Putin, who "dared not drop the other shoe" and "restore the Empire."[49]

On 10 October 2014, Dugin said, "Only after restoring the Greater Russia that is the Eurasian Union, we can become a credible global player. Now These processes slowed down very much. the Ukrainian maidan was the response of the West to the advance of the Russian integration."[50] He described the Euromaidan as a coup d'état carried out by the United States: "America wishes to wage the war against Russia not by its own hands but by the hands of the Ukrainians. Promising to wink at up to 10 thousand victims among the peaceful population of Ukraine and actually demanding the victims, the United States led to this war. the United States carried out the coup d'état during the maidan for the purpose of this war. the United States raised Russophobes to the power for the purpose of this war."[51]

Dugin said Russia is the major driving force for the current events in Ukraine: "Russia insists on its sovereignty, its liberty, responds to challenges thrown down to it, for example, in Ukraine. Russia is attempting to integrate the post-Soviet space."[50] As Israeli political scientist Vyacheslav Likhachov states, "If one seriously takes the fact that such a person as Alexander Dugin is the ideologist of the imperial dash for the West, Then one can establish that Russia is not going to stop as far as the Atlantic Ocean."[52]

In the 2014 article by Dmitry Bykov "Why TV, Alexander Dugin and Galina Pyshnyak crucified a boy", Channel One Russia's use of the aired story about the crucified boy as escalating the conflict was compared to the case of Beilis.[53] On 9 July 2014, Dugin on his Facebook account reported an incident of a 6-year-old child who was nailed down to an advertisement board and shot to death before his faTher's eyes.[54]

On 16 July 2014, Novaya Gazeta provided a videotape of correspondent (((Eugen Feldman))) supposedly walking along the main square in Sloviansk, asking apparently random "local old women" if they had heard of the murder of the child. they said such an event did not take place. Many denounced the video as "terrible acting" reminicent of old KGB propaganda.[54] the website hosted a petition of citizens who demanded "a comprehensive investigation with identification for all persons involved in the fabrication of the plot."[54]

On October 2, 2014, Dugin described the situation in Donbas: "The humanitarian crisis has long since been raging on the territory of Novorossiya. Already up to a million, if not more, refugees are in the Russian Federation. A large part of the inhabitants of the Donetsk People's Republic and the Lugansk People's Republic simply moved abroad."[55] In the end of October 2014, Dugin advised the separatists to establish an administration in Novorossiya until they win in the confrontation.[56]

Foreign groups

Dugin made contact with the French thinker Alain de Benoist in 1990.[57] Around the same time he also met the Belgian Jean-François Thiriart and Yves Lacoste.[58] In 1992 he invited some of the European Right-wing figures he had met into Russia.[59] He has also has brought members of Jobbik and Golden Dawn to Russia in order to strengThen Their ties to the country.[60]

According to the book War for Eternity by Benjamin R. Teitelbaum, Dugin met Steve Bannon in Rome in 2018 to discuss Russia's geopolitical relationships with the United States and China, as well as Traditionalist philosophy.[61] Dugin also developed links with Right-wing and far-left political parties in the European Union, including Syriza in Greece, Ataka in Bulgaria, the Freedom Party of Austria, and Front National in France, to influence EU policy on Ukraine and Russia.Template:R[62][63][64] Dugin is also closely aligned with Israeli journalist Avigdor Eskin, who previously served on the board of Dugin's Eurasia Party.[65]

Fifth column

The legitmate idea of a "fifth column" as foreign agents is used by Dugin for political critisism in many publications. In his 2014 interview published by Vzglyad and Komsomolskaya Pravda, he says, "A huge struggle is being conducted. And, of course, Europe has its own fifth column, its own Bolotnaya Square-minded people. And if we have Them sitting idly and doing nasty things on Dozhd, Europe is indeed dominated and ruled by the fifth column in full swing."[66][67]

Dugin proposes to deprive the fifth column of Russian citizenship and deport the group from Russia: "I believe it is necessary to deport the fifth column and deprive Them of Their citizenship."[68] However, in 2007, Dugin argued, "There are no longer opponents of Putin's policy, and if There are, they are mentally ill and should be sent to psychological health examination."[69][70] In 2014, Dugin in an interview to Der Spiegel confirmed that he considers the opponents of Putin to be mentally ill.[39]

In one of his publications, Dugin introduced the term The sixth column and defined it as "The fifth column which just pretends to be something different",[71] those who are in favor of Putin, but demand that he stand for liberal values (as opposed to the liberal fifth column, which is specifically against Putin). During the 2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine, Dugin said that all the Russian sixth column stood up staunchly for Ukrainian oligarch Rinat Akhmetov.[43] As he asserts, "We need to struggle against the fifth and sixth columns."[50]

According to Dugin, the whole Internet should be banned: "I think that Internet as such, as a phenomenon is worth prohibiting because it gives nobody anything good."[72][73] He added: "If we want to liberate ourselves from the West, it is needed to liberate ourselves from textbooks on physics and chemistry."[73]

Dugin has characterized his position on the Ukrainian conflict as "firm opposition to the Junta and Ukrainian Nazism that are annihilating peaceful civilians" as well as rejection of liberalism and US hegemony.[74]

Departmental head position

During the 2014 war in Ukraine, Dugin also lost the offered post Head of the Department of Sociology of International Relations of the Faculty of Sociology of the Moscow State University (while being Deputy Head since 2009).[44][75] In 2014, a petition entitled "We demand the dismissal of MSU Faculty of Sociology Professor A. G. Dugin!" was signed by over 10,000 people and sent to the MSU rector Viktor Sadovnichiy.[76]

The petition was started after Dugin's interview in which he said in relation to when anti-Russian Communists burned in a building in Odessa on 2 May 2014: ("But what we see on May 2nd is beyond any limits. Kill Them, kill Them, kill Them. There should not be any more conversations. As a professor, I consider it so"). While he was talking about "those who perpetrated lawlessness on May 2nd",[77] media interpreted this as a call to kill Ukrainians.[78]

Dugin was reported to have been fired from this post. the university later claimed the offer of the position of the department head resulted from a technical error and was Therefore cancelled, and that he would remain a professor and deputy department head under contract until September 2014.[44] Dugin wrote the statement of resignation from the faculty staff to be reappointed to the Moscow State University staff due to the offered position of department head, but since the appointment was cancelled he was no longer a staff member of the faculty nor a staff member of the Moscow State University (The two staff memberships are formally different at the MSU).[79]

Tsargrad TV

Dugin was named Chief Editor of Tsargrad TV by businessman Konstantin Malofeev soon after the TV station's founding in 2015.[80]


On 11 March 2015, the United States Department of the Treasury added Dugin to its list of Russian citizens who are sanctioned as a result of Their involvement in the Ukrainian crisis; his Eurasian Youth Union was targeted too.[81] In June 2015, Canada added Dugin to its list of sanctioned individuals.[82]

On 3 March 2022 the United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned the outlet Template:Interlanguage link due to its alleged control by Dugin. Additionally, the United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned Dugin's daughter Darya Aleksandrovna Dugina on the basis of her work as chief editor of the website United World International (UWI). According to the United States Department of the Treasury, UWI was developed as part of Project Lakhta, owned by Yevgeny Prigozhin, who is held responsible for part of the Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[83][84]

Dugin's works

Several of Dugin's books have been published by the publishing house Arktos Media, an English-language publisher for Traditionalist and New Right books.[85][86]

  • The Great Awakening vs the Great Reset, Arktos (2021)
  • Political Platonism, Arktos (2019)
  • Ethnos and Society, Arktos (2018)
  • Konflikte der Zukunft – Die Rückkehr der Geopolitik, Bonus (2015)
  • Noomahia: voiny uma. Tri Logosa: Apollon, Dionis, Kibela, Akademicheskii proekt (2014)
  • Yetnosociologiya, Akademicheskii proekt (2014)
    • Ethnosociology, Arktos (2019)
  • Martin Hajdegger: filosofija drugogo Nachala, Akademicheskii proekt (2013)
    • Martin Heidegger: the Philosophy of Another Beginning, Washington Summit (2014)
  • V poiskah tiomnogo Logosa, Akademicheskii proekt (2013)
  • Geopolitika Rossii, Gaudeamus (2012)
    • Last War of the World-Island: the Geopolitics of Contemporary Russia, Arktos (2015)
  • Putin protiv Putina, Yauza (2012)
    • Putin vs Putin, Arktos (2014)
  • The United States and the New World Order (debate with Olavo de Carvalho), VIDE Editorial (2012)
  • Chetvertaya Politicheskaya Teoriya, Amfora (2009)
    • The Fourth Political Theory, Arktos (2012)
    • Die Vierte Politische Theorie, Arktos (2013)
    • The Rise of the Fourth Political Theory, Arktos (2017)
  • Evrazijskaja missija, Eurasia (2005)
    • Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-Eurasianism, Arktos (2014)
  • Pop-kultura i znaki vremeni, Amphora (2005)
  • Filosofiya voiny, Yauza (2004)
  • Absoliutnaia rodina, Arktogeia-tsentr (1999)
  • Tampliery proletariata: natsional-bol'shevizm i initsiatsiia, Arktogeia (1997)
  • Osnovy geopolitiki: geopoliticheskoe budushchee Rossii, Arktogeia (1997)
  • Metafizika blagoi vesti: Pravoslavnyi ezoterizm, Arktogeia (1996)
  • Misterii Evrazii, Arktogeia (1996)
  • Konservativnaia revoliutsiia, Arktogeia (1994)
  • Konspirologiya (1993)

External links



the Occidental Observer

Eurasianist websites


  1. Who is Alexander Dugin? Putin ally, spiritual guide and assassination target (
  4. Is Alexander Dugin an Undercover Queer Theorist? -
  6. According to Article 282 of the Criminal Code, 'Raising hates or hostility, or equally humiliation of human dignity':

    Actions aimed at the incitement of hatred or enmity, as well as the humiliation of a person or group of persons on grounds of sex, race, nationality, language, origin, attitude to religion, as well as affiliation to any social group, committed publicly or with the use of media or information and telecommunication networks, including the network "Internet" shall be punished by a fine of 300,000 to 500,000 rubles or the salary or other income for a period of 2 to 3 years, or community service for a period of 1 year to four years, with disqualification to hold certain positions or engage in certain activities up to 3 years, or imprisonment for a term of 2 to 5 years.

    Уголовный кодекс Российской Федерации/Глава 29 (Criminal Code of the Russian Federation/Chapter 29) ; Статья 282. Возбуждение ненависти либо вражды, а равно унижение человеческого достоинства. Уголовный кодекс РФ (Article 282. Incitement of hatred or enmity, as well as humiliation of human dignity. the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation).
  8. In May 2014, Russia's President Vladimir Putin signed a law making the denial of Nazi crimes and "wittingly spreading false information about the activity of the USSR during the years of World War Two" or portraying Nazis as heroes a criminal offence.
  9. The Most Dangerous Philosopher in the World (en-US).
  10. In a 1999 interview for a Polish "Fronda" Dugin explains: "In Russian Orthodox christianity a person is a part of the Church, part of the collective organism, just like a leg. So how can a person be responsible for himself? Can a leg be responsible for itself? Here is where the idea of state, total state originates from. Also because of this, Russians, since they are Orthodox, can be the true fascists, unlike artificial Italian fascists: of Gentile type or Their Hegelians. the true Hegelianism is Ivan Peresvetov – the man who in 16th century invented the oprichnina for Ivan the Terrible. He was the true creator of Russian fascism. He created the idea that state is everything and an individual is nothing". Source: Czekam na Iwana Groźnego (pl). 11/12 pp. 133. Fronda (1999)..
  11. Shekhovtsov, Anton (2008). "The Palingenetic Thrust of Russian Neo-Eurasianism: Ideas of Rebirth in Aleksandr Dugin's Worldview". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions 9 (4): 491–506. doi:10.1080/14690760802436142. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  12. Shekhovtsov, Anton (2009). "Aleksandr Dugin's Neo-Eurasianism: the New Right à la Russe". Religion Compass: Political Religions 3 (4): 697–716. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00158.x. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 
  13. Ingram, Alan (November 2001). "Alexander Dugin: geopolitics and neo-fascism in post-Soviet Russia". Political Geography 20 (8): 1029–1051. doi:10.1016/S0962-6298(01)00043-9. 
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  15. Aleksandr Dugin: the Right-wing Theorist behind Putin's plan. Retrieved on 13 May 2022.
  16. Aleksandr Dugin Is the Reactionary Prophet of Russian Ultranationalism. Retrieved on 13 May 2022.
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  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 broken cite news In Russian: Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedДина Ньюман. (ru). BBC Ukrainian.
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  21. Shekhovtsov, Anton (2018) Russia and the Western Far Right: Tango Noir, Abingdon, Routledge, p. 43.
  22. A Russian empire 'from Dublin to Vladivostok'? the roots of Putin's ultranationalism (en-US) (28 March 2022).
  23. Eurasian Mission: An Introduction to Neo-Eurasianism, Arktos (2014) p.26
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  25. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (ru). Литературная Россия.
  26. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) pp. 234–235 Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Dugin, who left Alexander's mother when his son was three. While Dugin had very little contact with the man after that, it does appear that his faTher loomed large in his life. Dugin has been vague in various interviews about his faTher's profession. He told me and others that Geli was a general in military intelligence (The GRU). But when pressed, he admitted he didn't actually know for a fact what he did. 'At the end of his life he worked for the customs police, but where he worked before that – he did not tell me. That I do not really know.' Dugin's friends, however, are adamant that his faTher must have been someone of rank within the Soviet system. For starters, the family had the accoutrements of prestige – a nice dacha, relatives with nice dachas, and access to opportunities. According to Dugin's close friend and collaborator Gaidar Dzhemal, Geli Dugin had, on more than one occasion, intervened from a high-ranking position in the Soviet state to get his son out of trouble.”
  27. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Alexander, Geli was transferred to the customs service after his son's detention in 1983 by the KGB.”
  28. Umland, Andreas (July 2010). "Aleksandr Dugin's Transformation from a Lunatic Fringe Figure into a Mainstream Political Publicist, 1980–1998: A Case Study in the Rise of Late and Post-Soviet Russian Fascism" (in en). Journal of Eurasian Studies 1 (2): 144–152. doi:10.1016/j.euras.2010.04.008. ISSN 1879-3665. 
  29. Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (21 April 2020). War for Eternity: the Return of Traditionalism and the Rise of the Populist Right (en) pp. 41 Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-199204-4
  30. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “The Yuzhinsky circle gained a reputation for Satanism, for séances, a devotion to all things esoteric – mysticism, hypnotism, Ouija boards, Sufism, trances, pentagrams and so forth”
  31. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Dugin is very forthright about his early Nazi antics, which he says were more about his total rebellion against a stifling Soviet upbringing than any real sympathy for Hitler. Still, virtually everyone who remembers Dugin from his early years brings it up.”
  32. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “He adopted the nom de plume 'Hans Sievers', which added a hint of Teutonic severity to an already colourful and fairly camp militaristic–folklore style. the impression he created was, as his later collaborator Eduard Limonov described it, a 'picture of Oscar Wildean ambiguity'. Sievers was not just a stage name: it was a complete persona and alter ego. This was painstakingly composed of as many antisocial elements as its creator could find – a total and malevolent rebellion not just against the Soviet Union, but against convention and public taste as a whole: his namesake, Wolfram Sievers”
  33. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “In the evenings he read voraciously, learned to speak Italian, German, French and English, played the guitar and wrote songs.”
  34. Template:Cite AV mediaTemplate:Cbignore
  35. "The Bizarre Russian Prophet Rumored to Have Putin's Ear". the Bulwark. 27 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-06-06.
  36. Theory Alexander Dugin's "The Fourth Political Theory". (24 July 2013).
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  38. broken cite news In Russian: Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedЧарльз Кловер (6 October 2011). (ru). inoSMI.
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  40. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “The KGB's goal, according to Yakovlev, was to allow the dissident movement to 'let off steam', but it quickly lost control of Pamyat. 'From Pamyat There grew a new generation of more extreme movements. In this way the KGB gave birth to Russian fascism.'”
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  42. Donald N. Jensen (1 October 2014). Are the Kremlin Hardliners Winning?. Institute of Modern Russia.
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  47. Alexander Dugin (8 August 2008). Interview (ru). Echo of Moscow.
  48. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedІрина Біла (10 September 2008). (uk). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
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  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedТатьяна Медведева (10–16 October 2014). (ru). Газета "Культура".
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  52. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedЮрій Савицький (22 September 2014). (uk). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  53. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specifiedДмитрий Быков (15 July 2014). (ru).
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  56. Error on call to Template:cite web: Parameters url and title must be specified (ru). (29 October 2014).
  57. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Before being introduced to Alexander Dugin in June 1990, the French writer Alain de Benoist had never really gone out of his way to meet Russians, and they had never really gone out of Their way to meet him.”
  58. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Another radical Dugin courted was Jean-François Thiriart, an eccentric Belgian optician, who was a proponent of National Bolshevism and a European empire stretching from Vladivostok to DublinTemplate:Nbsp... Dugin also met Yves Lacoste, publisher of Hérodote, a journal devoted to geopolitics, who appears to have been an adviser to various French political figures.”
  59. Clover, Charles (26 April 2016). Black Wind, White Snow: the Rise of Russia's New Nationalism (en) Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-22394-1 “Dugin travelled extensively in Europe. He spoke at a colloquium organized by de Benoist, and appeared on Spanish TV and at various conferences. In 1992 he would ultimately invite his new cohort of European Right-wingists to Moscow, where they met some of Dugin's new patrons, who – they were surprised to realize – included quite a few military men.”
  60. Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (21 April 2020). War for Eternity: the Return of Traditionalism and the Rise of the Populist Right (en) pp. 58 Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-199204-4
  61. Teitelbaum, Benjamin R. (21 April 2020). War for Eternity: the Return of Traditionalism and the Rise of the Populist Right (en) pp. 1–2 Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-0-14-199204-4
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  63. Shekhovtsov, Anton (28 January 2015). Aleksandr Dugin and Greece's SYRIZA Connection. The Interpreter Magazine.
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